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Sept 1938 Munich Agreement

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Later in the session, a pre-arranged deception was made to influence Chamberlain and put pressure on him: one of Hitler`s advisers entered the room to inform Hitler that other Germans had been killed in Czechoslovakia, to which Hitler shouted in response: „I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be annihilated. [32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the Allies` demands. [32] Later that evening, Hitler worried that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain and called the suite of Chamberlain`s hotel and said he would agree to annex only the Sudetenland, with no plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began the evacuation of ethnic Czechs from German-majority territories by September 26 at 8:00 a.m. .m. After pressure from Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to set the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that this was a concession he was willing to make to the prime minister as a „gift,“ out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain had been willing to deviate somewhat from his previous position. [37] Hitler went on to say that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial claims over Czechoslovakia and would conclude a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] On September 30, 1938, Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy concluded an agreement that allowed for a German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia.

The area included about three million people of German origin and in May 1938 it was learned that Hitler and his generals planned to occupy the country. In the elections in the Reichsgau Sudetenland on December 4, 1938, 97.32% of the adult population voted for the NSDAP. About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the NSDAP, or 17.34% of the Sudeten German population (the average participation in the NSDAP in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). This made the Sudetenland the most „Nazi-friendly“ region of the Third Reich. [89] GERMANY, the United Kingdom, France and Italy, taking into account the agreement in principle already concluded on the allocation of the German territory of the Sudetenland to Germany, have agreed on the following conditions for the said cession and the resulting measures, and by this agreement they each hold themselves responsible for the steps necessary to ensure its execution: [mute] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference of September 1938 cedes the German-speaking Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the munich accords were signed, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. UCLA Film and Television Archive In May 1938, it was known that Hitler and his generals were drawing up a plan for the occupation of Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovaks depended on military aid from France, with which they had an alliance.

The Soviet Union also had a treaty with Czechoslovakia, and this signaled a willingness to cooperate with France and Britain if they decided to come and defend Czechoslovakia, but the Soviet Union and its potential services were ignored throughout the crisis, as most of the border defense had been in the territory ceded as a result of the Munich Accords. the rest of Czechoslovakia, despite its relatively large stockpiles of modern weapons, was completely open to a new invasion. In a speech to the Reichstag, Hitler expressed the importance of the occupation in strengthening the German army, noting that through the occupation of Czechoslovakia, Germany gained 2,175 field guns and cannons, 469 tanks, 500 anti-aircraft artillery guns, 43,000 machine guns, 1,090,000 military rifles, 114,000 pistols, about a billion rounds of small arms ammunition and three million rounds of anti-aircraft ammunition. This could then arm about half of the Wehrmacht. [93] Czechoslovak weapons then played an important role in the German conquest of Poland and France, the latter of which had urged Czechoslovakia to surrender in the Sudetenland in 1938. . The solution to the Czechoslovak problem that has just been found is, in my opinion, only the prelude to a greater solution in which the whole of Europe can find peace. This morning I had another conversation with the German Chancellor, Mr. Hitler, and here is the newspaper that says both his name and my name. Some of you may have heard what`s in it, but I just want to read it to you: „. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as a symbol of the will of our two peoples never to go to war with each other again. [96] On April 28 and 29, 1938, Daladier met with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in London to discuss the situation.

Chamberlain, who saw no way Hitler could be prevented from completely destroying Czechoslovakia if that was his intention (which Chamberlain doubted), argued that Prague should be pushed to make territorial concessions to Germany. The French and British leaders believed that peace could only be saved by transferring the Sudetenland German territories from Czechoslovakia. On 5 October, Beneš resigned as President of Czechoslovakia, recognizing that the fall of Czechoslovakia was inevitable. After the outbreak of World War II, he formed a Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London. He told Chamberlain that he wanted Czechoslovakia completely dissolved and its territories distributed to Germany, Poland, and Hungary, and ordered Chamberlain to take or leave it. [32] Chamberlain was shocked by this statement. [32] Hitler went on to tell Chamberlain that since their last meeting on the 15th, Czechoslovakia`s actions, which Hitler said involved murders of Germans, had made the situation unbearable for Germany. [32] 29.–30. September 1938: Germany, Italy, Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must hand over its border regions and defenses (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. .